3D PHOTOACOUSTIC TOMOGRAPHY IN AN ENDOSCOPIC FORM FACTOR
We present the results of a study to introduce photoacoustic tomography capability into a 2D endoscopic 64-element phased and 3D endoscopic 128-element crossed electrode ultrasound array for the use in endoscopic brain surgery. Our approach was to fix fi ber optic cables to the ultrasound arrays, couple these fi bers to a diode bar laser, and alter the ultrasound system fi rmware for both endoscopes. Through experiments performed on hair targets, we established requirements for transducer operating frequency, transducer dimensions, illumination intensity and illumination duration. We were able to integrate photoacoustic tomography into both endoscope systems and achieve images but the acquisition time was far too long to be surgically useful.