Characterization of anti-inflammatory, anti-Streptococcus pyogenes and anti-biofilm activities of summer savory phytochemicals
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Streptococcus pyogenes is a common cause of sore throat that requires clinical intervention. Antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are often prescribed to inhibit the growth of bacteria and relieve pain, respectively. However, the side effects of using those drugs have been reported, thus, alternative treatments are required. Summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.) has been used as a traditional medicinal herb. In this study, fifteen summer savory phytochemicals including polyphenols, isoprenoids, and extracts were investigated for anti-inflammatory, anti-S. pyogenes and anti-biofilm properties. Rosmarinic acid and apigenin were the major phytochemicals in the ethanol extract. The ethanol extract from leaves, apigenin and carvacrol, and essential oil from whole plant showed the greatest anti-inflammatory activities in vitro in THP-1 differentiated macrophages and human tonsil epithelial cells (HTonEpiC). The above preparations and phytochemicals also exhibited strong anti-S. pyogenes activity towards three strains of S. pyogenes.