Anti-proliferative properties of quercetin-3-O-glucoside and its six long chain fatty acid acylated derivatives in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells
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Six long chain fatty acid esters of quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q3G) acylated enzymatically were used for determining their antiproliferative action in comparison to precursor compounds (quercetin, Q3G and six fatty acids namely, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexanoic acids) using HepG2 cells. Long chain fatty acid esters of Q3G showed significant inhibition of cell proliferation (approximately 85% to 90%) compared to the precursor compounds and two prescribed anticancer-drugs (Sorafenib and Cisplatin) after 6 hrs and 24 hrs by inducing cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and DNA topoisomerase II inhibition. Among the six fatty acid esters of Q3G, oleic acid ester (OA-Q3G) displayed the greatest anti-proliferation action and upon further investigation showed significant regulation of expression of genes involved in cell cycle, growth, survival and apoptosis at gene and protein level. Overall, results of the study suggest strong potential of these novel compounds in treatment of liver cancer.