Design and Application of P,N-Ligands for Platinum-Group Metal Catalyzed Reactions
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Homogeneous organometallic species serve as useful catalysts for a vast number of chemical transformations. Ancillary ligands which bind to the metal center are employed to modulate the reactivity of the metal, and have been key to the discovery and improvement of most types of transition metal-mediated reactions. This thesis describes the design and application of P,N-ligands in platinum group-catalyzed reactions, specifically the Ru- and Ir-catalyzed ketone transfer hydrogenation (TH) and the Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling of aryl (pseudo)halides and N-H containing substrates. A zwitterionic Ru-species featuring a donor substituted P,N-indenide ligand was found to be an excellent catalyst for ketone TH, providing turnover frequencies (TOFs) as high as 300 000 h-1, while related cationic Ru-complexes ligated by P,N-indene ligands were found to be rather poor catalysts. Ir-complexes supported by either indene or indenide P,N-ligands were also found to be active TH catalysts (TOFs ~30 000 h-1), however phenylene P,N ligands, specifically (o-tBu2P-C6H4)NMe2, displayed optimal catalytic performance, allowing for rapid ketone reduction (TOFs of >100 000 h-1), at low catalyst loadings (as low as 0.004 mol% Ir). Enantioselective TH was achieved by employing the suitably substituted, commercially available P,N-ligand, Cy-Mandyphos in combination with [Ir(COD)Cl]2 and NaPF6. The use of P,N-ligands in Pd-catalyzed C-N cross coupling, specifically (o-R2P-C6H4)NMe2 (R = tBu or 1-Ad), allowed for the development of a highly versatile catalyst system for this reaction. In combination with [Pd(allyl)Cl]2 or [Pd(cinnamyl)Cl]2, the above described ligands enabled the cross-coupling of aryl and heteroaryl chlorides and bromides to a diverse range of amine and related substrates such as primary alkyl- and arylamines, cyclic and acyclic secondary amines, N-H imines, hydrazones, lithium amide, and ammonia. Reactions could be performed at low catalyst loadings (0.5-0.02 mol% Pd) with excellent functional group tolerance and chemoselectivity. The ligand N-[2-di(1-adamantylphosphino)phenyl]morpholine in combination with [Pd(cinnamyl)Cl]2 was found to provide excellent reactivity for the cross-coupling of ammonia to aryl chlorides with catalyst loadings of 0.3-5 mol% Pd. Sterically unbiased substrates containing electron-donating groups were tolerated with minimal competing diarylation. Aryl tosylates could be coupled with ammonia at room temperature and chemoselective ammonia arylation in the presence of other amine functionality was well tolerated. Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling of hydrazine with aryl chlorides and tosylates was achieved employing N-[2-di(1-adamantylphosphino)phenyl]-morpholine as the ligand. Good yields of the desired, mono-functionalized aryl hydrazine product was observed for a range of substrates at 5 mol% Pd. Selective hydrazine coupling was observed in the presence of other NH-functionality and NH-indazoles could be prepared by the tandem cross-coupling/condensation of hydrazine with 2-chlorobenzaldehydes.