Establishing an Appropriate Regulatory Framework and Harmonized Security Measures for the Protection of Mixed-Use Marine Facilities within Canadian Ports
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The significance of maritime transport security is a factor of the highly vulnerable and variable mode of maritime transportation and the resulting security threats from the various sources of cargo. There is an urgent need for nations to establish an effective security framework to resolve regulatory gaps and overlaps for their national security infrastructure within the marine sector. Several marine industries have been exempted from the scope of national and international security frameworks, notably the offshore oil and gas sector. Balancing the need for implementing suitable security measures with the need for sustainable trade objectives is a challenge for most countries. However, a consistent and comprehensive regulatory framework that addresses the majority, if not all, of the supply chain activities would reduce regulatory gaps, overlaps, thus ensuring that trade facilitation is continued. Implementation of a suitable regulatory framework for marine facilities’ and ports’ security could be founded on a public-private partnership, which would offer a collaborative and consultative environment for all stakeholders. It is expected that under this framework, marine industrial activity would be protected against any interruption resulted from security threats, while providing a clear and coherent regulatory framework. A case study of a proposed mixed-use facility in Richmond Terminal and Sheet Harbor, Nova Scotia, are used for a comparative analysis of their marine security regimes. Four international security infrastructure examples (i.e., Australia, United Kingdom, Canada, and United States) are additionally analyzed to propose lessons learned for improved marine security management in Atlantic Canada.