Exposure: A Conceptual Framework for End Users Engagement Through Complexities-Driven Participatory Design for Patient-Facing Systems
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We compared two participatory design-based protocols: operational complexities-aware group versus operational complexities-unaware group. We found that when exposed to potential operational complexities, end users provided more comprehensive design artifacts, in terms of features, to address usage complexities. Results imply that involving exposed users in the design process yields comprehensive design decisions and features that can be used to guide system development. Contrary to our expectations, exposing end users to operational complexities resulted in comprehensive design decisions and features, independent of their electronic health knowledge. Based on the “exposure” factor and the other three literature-supported factors, we developed a conceptual framework for end user involvement in Patient Facing Systems (PFS) design. We call the framework “Exposure” which is a complexities-aware Participatory Design (PD) framework for PFS. The framework addresses the need for a set of guidelines describing the engagement of end users at the initial stages of system design.