QUANTITATIVE AQUATIC TOXICITY MEASURES OF PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS (PPCPs) AND THEIR SUBLETHAL AND LETHAL EFFECTS IN AQUATIC ORGANISMS
Little is known about sublethal and lethal effects of exposures of PPCPs, individually or synergistically, on specific aquatic organisms. To understand the toxic implications of PPCPs on aquatic organisms, a literature review was conducted on aquatic toxicity of PPCPs. This review revealed a diverse range of aquatic organisms affected by PPCPs at both sublethal and lethal exposures, including sublethal effects at environmentally relevant concentrations. Because lethal effects were seldom observed in aquatic organisms at environmentally relevant concentrations, many studies considered PPCPs non-toxic. However, PPCP concentrations in environment will likely increase in future to sublethal and near-lethal ranges for aquatic organisms due to extensive and increasing use, except when treated through advanced wastewater treatment processes. Despite a large number of studies, few address effects of individual PPCPs on same organisms for identical exposure parameters (time, concentration), resulting in wide variation in reported toxicity levels with limited consensus in academic literature.