Are all smokers the same? The impact of nicotine and non-nicotine factors on cigarette smoking among Light and Intermittent, and Daily Dependent Smokers
Light and/or intermittent smokers (LITS) and daily dependent smokers (DDS) differ in their smoking patterns and motivations, but the role of nicotine in such differences is unclear. This study assessed the independent and combined influences of nicotine and non-nicotine factors on subjective and behavioural smoking-related outcomes. Forty-one non-treatment seeking smokers (18 LITS) administered nicotine-containing cigarettes (NC), denicotinized cigarettes (DC), nicotine inhalers (NI), or placebo inhalers (PI) across four laboratory sessions following overnight abstinence. Subjects rated their subjective state throughout each session and engaged in a smoking lapse task to assess their smoking behaviour. LITS experienced lower craving and withdrawal, self-administered fewer cigarette puffs (p.001) and tended to delay the onset of smoking for longer (p=.04, FDR>5%) than DDS. Pre-administration of NC and DC decreased craving and smoking behaviour across participants (p<.001), suggesting that a combination of nicotine and non-nicotine factors contribute to modulating cigarette smoking in LITS and DDS alike.