Mismatched: A Quantitative Evaluation of Thinking Versus Doing Masculinity in Canadian Sport
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Increasing pressure and activism for social justice is challenging the primacy of hegemonic masculinity. As a result, inclusive masculinities, signified by stereotypically feminine traits are argued to exemplify the current hegemonic norm. Considering these liberalizing trends, the intent of this research is to evaluate the current state of masculinity and the degree to which progressive social trends are suppressing the reproduction of patriarchy and oppressive gender norms, and how this phenomenon varies by race, age, class, region, educational attainment, sexual orientation, and sport participation. Using correspondence and regression analysis of original survey data, this research explores the interrelationship between social norms and oppressive masculine paradigms. By surveying Canadian male athletes this research examines shifting conceptions and expressions of masculinity to determine whether traditional male gender norms are softening. The findings indicate that although progressive social developments are working to suppress discriminatory behaviours, the ideological foundations of oppressive masculinity remain intact.