Exploration of Phytochemical-Rich Extracts of Selected Canadian Plants Against Streptococcal Pharyngitis
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Streptococcal pharyngitis is a significant health issue worldwide. Antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are often prescribed as treatments. However, discovery of specific phytochemicals as novel antimicrobials agents or analgesic natural health product could help in overcoming the therapeutic challenges. In this study, 32 phytochemical extracts were investigated for anti-streptococcal and anti-inflammatory activity in vitro. Ethanol extract of licorice roots, sage leaves and echinacea flowers and essential oils of sage leaves and oregano flowering shoots showed significant inhibition of growth and biofilm formation of Streptococcus pyogenes. Furthermore, aqueous extracts of ginger rhizome, clove buds, echinacea flowers, thyme flowering shoots and ethanolic extracts of danshen roots showed greater in vitro anti-inflammatory activity on human tonsil epithelial cells. Therefore, considering both antimicrobial and analgesic abilities, extracts of oregano, sage, licorice, echinacea and thyme may have the potential to be used as natural health products, in the management of streptococcal pharyngitis.