Algebraic and Logical Methods in Quantum Computation
Ross, Neil Julien
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This thesis contains contributions to the theory of quantum computation. We first define a new method to efficiently approximate special unitary operators. Specifically, given a special unitary U and a precision ε > 0, we show how to efficiently find a sequence of Clifford+V or Clifford+T operators whose product approximates U up to ε in the operator norm. In the general case, the length of the approximating sequence is asymptotically optimal. If the unitary to approximate is diagonal then our method is optimal: it yields the shortest sequence approximating U up to ε. Next, we introduce a mathematical formalization of a fragment of the Quipper quantum programming language. We define a typed lambda calculus called Proto- Quipper which formalizes a restricted but expressive fragment of Quipper. The type system of Proto-Quipper is based on intuitionistic linear logic and prohibits the duplication of quantum data, in accordance with the no-cloning property of quantum computation. We prove that Proto-Quipper is type-safe in the sense that it enjoys the subject reduction and progress properties.