An Insight into implant failure through Inducible Displacement and Gait Analysis in Total Knee Replacements
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Knee osteoarthritis is a debilitating disease causing pain and disability in adults. Biomechanical factors including obesity, abnormal magnitude and load distribution have been cited to play a role in its initiation and progression with its definite cause being multi-factorial. Total knee arthroplasty has become the treatment of choice for knee osteoarthritis and although the procedure is mostly successful, there are some patients who experience implant failures which necessitates revision surgery. Revision surgery is more complicated and thus there is the need to monitor patients who have undergone TKA so as ensure better outcomes and also address problems much earlier. Objective methods like Radiostereometric Analysis (RSA) has proven to be a good tool at diagnosing these implant failures. Inducible displacement with RSA has the potential to serve as a one-time measure to diagnose implant failures. Previous studies have applied loads to induce motion to the knee in various ways- squatting, exercising and weight-bearing on the affected limb. This was not standardized and caused wide variations in the data. This work looked at refining a device used to apply standardized loads to the knee resulting in a more portable and faster way of applying load to the joint. Gait analysis is used to assess implant function pre and post surgery. Some gait patterns have also been related to implant failure. Previous works have focussed primarily on associations between well-working implants (non-revised patients) and these gait patterns (adduction moments and flexion angles). This work focussed on any differences in the gait patterns between patients who did not undergo revision surgery and those that did. Although most parameter differences did not reach statistical differences, they point to important trends that may explain the causative factors (adduction moments) whiles others may point to the effects of disease progression (external rotation).