Exploring the Relationship Between Orthographic Processing and Word Reading
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Relationships between various types of orthographic processing and word reading were explored in a sample of 90 second and third grade students in a one and a half year longitudinal study. Participants were administered tests of lexical and sublexical orthographic knowledge, orthographic learning, word reading accuracy, word reading fluency, irregular word reading, nonword decoding, phonological awareness, and nonverbal reasoning. Cross-lag hierarchical regression analyses were used in order to predict growth in the dependent variable. In all analyses, the controls of age, nonverbal reasoning, phonological awareness, and an earlier measure of the dependent variable were entered into the regression before the predictor variable. Generally, it was found that orthographic knowledge measures did not predict growth in word reading (with the exception of irregular word reading), whereas word reading measures predicted growth in orthographic knowledge. Orthographic learning did significantly predict growth in all measures of word reading except nonword decoding. Only word reading accuracy predicted growth in orthographic learning measures. Implications for reading development theory and reading education are discussed.