A Comparative Study of the Anti-Breast Cancer and Immunomodulatory Effects of -, -, and -Gingerol
Bernard, Megan M
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-Gingerol, -gingerol, and -gingerol are phytochemical extracts from ginger that are thought to contribute to its health-benefitting properties. The objectives of this investigation were to explore and compare the in vitro anti-proliferative and cytotoxic effects of -, -, and -gingerol on human and mouse mammary carcinoma cells, as well as their ability to inhibit T cell proliferation. -Gingerol and -gingerol induced mammary carcinoma cell death that did not require ROS production or caspase activation. All three gingerols inhibited the proliferation of mammary carcinoma cells and T cells, and the production of IFN-? by T cells. The production of IL-2 and the expression of early T cell activation markers, CD25 and CD69, were significantly decreased by - and -gingerol. The results demonstrated that -gingerol was the most potent, followed by -gingerol, then -gingerol. Consequently, - and -gingerol warrant further investigation for the treatment of breast cancer and the control of inflammation.