Sea level rise impacts in coastal zones: Soft measures to cope with it
Blanca Cisneros Linares, Paola
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Sea level rise impacts are projected to cause multiple negative consequences in coastal zones such as coastal erosion, flooding, flood-related health problems, property damage and social-economic impacts. Thus, it is imperative to assess adaptation measures to minimize these devastating projections. Several responsive strategies to sea level rise (i.e. Retreat, Accommodate, Protect) have been developed. Within the Protect Responsive Strategy, ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ adaptation options have been widely implemented in coastal zones. This paper examines several ‘soft’ adaptation options (beach nourishment, dune restoration, afforestation and reforestation, and marine soft engineering technology), which provide interesting alternatives to address sea level rise in coastal zones. Advantages and disadvantages of these soft options are analyzed from an ecological and socio-economic perspective. The paper concludes with some proposed recommendations that could support soft structure approaches in coastal zone areas.