Temporal and individual song variation in the Canada Warbler (Cardellina canadensis)
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Song repertoire structure, organization, and use were studied in 68 male Canada Warblers (Cardellina canadensis) in a breeding population in New Hampshire in 2010-2011. On average, males had complex repertoires of 12 phrases and 55 variants. Repertoire sharing was negatively related to distance between territories, and positively related to longer territory tenure, evidence that males learn songs from neighbours. Males used two singing modes: (I) slow, regular delivery of less variable songs, and (II) fast, intermittent delivery of more variable songs interspersed with chips. Males used Mode I when unpaired and when near females, and Mode II at dawn and during territory disputes, a pattern similar to other warbler species with two song categories. Detectability (whether a male sang) differed little between 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-min count intervals. Song output and detectability were highest at dawn and in unpaired males, and lowest in paired males late in the season.