APPLE PROCESSING BY-PRODUCTS AS A FEEDSTOCK FOR MANUFACTURE OF BIO-ETHANOL AND ORGANIC ACIDS
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Bio-conversion of agricultural wastes provides a viable solution to multiple environmental problems as well as production of natural products. Apple processing for manufacturing juice, pies and sauce results in significant volumes of underutilized by-products. This study aims to optimize the method for producing fermentable sugars from apple processing by-products. The conditions required for pre-treatment, polyphenol removal and enzymatic hydrolysis were optimized. The optimized conditions for dilute sulfuric acid-based hydrothermal pre-treatment were acid concentration of 1.5% (w/v) at 91 oC for 16 min. The final yield of 12.7% fermentable sugars (glucose, fructose and galacturonic acid) was obtained after multistep hydrolysis using commercial cellulase, pectinase and ?-glucosidase at 9, 38 and 8 enzyme units/g FW, respectively. The other optimum conditions were temperature of 40 oC, pH at 4.0 and 24 h of reaction time. These fermentable sugars can further be converted into bio-ethanol and organic acids using specific yeast and bacteria.