The role of faces in item-method directed forgetting
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The current thesis explored the intentional forgetting of different types of facial expression (Angry, Neutral, Happy) within the item-method directed forgetting paradigm (Experiments 1-4). Also, as a manipulation check, Experiment 5 obtained the subjective ratings of valence and arousal for the different types of facial expression used in the previous four Experiments. In summary, a significant directed forgetting effect occurred for Neutral facial expressions; however, a significant directed forgetting effect did not consistently occur for emotional facial expressions (e.g., there was no directed forgetting effect for Angry facial expressions in Experiments 2 and 3, or Happy facial expressions in Experiment 3). These findings are discussed in terms of encoding time as well as valence and arousal, and how these two factors modulate the effect of emotional facial expression on the ability to intentionally forget.