Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of omega-3 vegetable oils
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The effects of temperature, reaction time, and substrate concentration on the incorporation of decanoic acid (DA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), into cocoa butter, were compared, using an immobilized enzyme derived from Rhizomucor miehei. All variables had an effect on incorporation of DA and ALA into cocoa butter but effects were not equivalent for the two fatty acids. Thus, DA was not an adequate model fatty acid for the incorporation of ALA into cocoa butter. The highest ALA incorporation achieved was 77.3±1.3. Samples with ALA incorporated were prepared as “pure” and “blends”, and these exceeded the milk and dark chocolate Canadian Food and Drug Regulation guidelines for products making omega-3 fatty acid content claims. The highest %TAG content, 97.3±1.0%, was achieved for the 11.9wt% “blend” sample. Differential scanning calorimetry suggested that both “pure” and “blend” samples contained mainly form IV and V, with much smaller quantities of form II polymorphs.