An Examination of Hardy-Weinberg Disequilibrium and Statistical Testing in Genetic Association Studies
Grover, Vaneeta Kaur
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In an unpublished study in Toronto it was observed that cases were in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium at a locus whereas their family members were in Hardy-Weinberg Disequilibrium (HWD). This led to an investigation of relatives of affected individuals to see whether the multiplicative model could be revealed by a nonzero HWD coefficient in relatives. Genotypic frequencies and HWD coefficients were derived for affected individuals and their affected and unaffected relatives. Methods were also developed to test for association using data from affected individuals and their relatives. In addition, a model was developed to assess whether the HWD observed in a data set from a stratified population can be explained by both genetic association and stratification. Parameter estimates for these models can be obtained using maximum likelihood methods, and used to deduce the mode of inheritance of the disease.