Biological processes and optical measurements near the sea surface: Some issues relevant to remote sensing
Cullen, J. J.
Lewis, M. R.
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There is good evidence that bio-optical relationships are altered near the surface: (1) the fluorescence yield from chlorophyll declines, leading to bias in the estimation of pigment from fluorometry; (2) the modeled relationship between solar-stimulated fluorescence and photosynthesis seems to deviate significantly from that presented for the lower euphotic zone; and (3) carbon-specific and cellular attenuation cross sections of phytoplankton change substantially during exposures to bright light. Even the measurement of primary productivity is problematic near the sea surface, because vertical mixing is not simulated and artifactual inhibition of photosynthesis can result. These problems can be addressed by focusing more sampling effort, experimental simulation, and analytical consideration on the upper optical depth and by shortening timescales for the measurement of marine photosynthesis. Special efforts to study near surface processes are justified, because new bio-optical algorithms will require quantitative descriptions of the responses of phytoplankton to bright light.
Cullen, J. J., and M. R. Lewis. 1995. "Biological processes and optical measurements near the sea surface: Some issues relevant to remote sensing." Journal of Geophysical Research.C.Oceans 100(C7): 13-13,266. DOI:10.1029/95JC00454