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Systematic review of childhood and adolescent risk and prognostic factors for recurrent headaches
Tougas, Michelle E
McGrath, Patrick J
Chambers, Christine T
Stinson, Jennifer N
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Little is known about childhood and adolescent risk and prognostic factors for recurrent headaches. This systematic review: (1) Examined longitudinal evidence about factors associated with onset and course of recurrent headaches in childhood or adolescence, using meta-analysis where possible; and (2) Evaluated the quality of this evidence using a modified GRADE framework. Through searching electronic databases, reference lists of included studies, and an electronic mail list we identified and included 23 articles reporting 19 cohorts. From the included studies we explored 27 risk factors for recurrent headaches, 27 prognostic factors for persistence of recurrent headaches, and 6 prognostic factors for presence of headache-related disability. The quality of evidence for most associations is low or very low. There is moderate quality evidence that females are at risk of developing recurrent headaches and of headaches persisting. There is high quality evidence suggesting that children with negative emotional states manifested through anxiety, depression or mental distress are not at risk of developing headache, but moderate quality evidence suggests that the presence of comorbid negative emotional states in children with headaches is associated with increased risk of headache persistence. Due to the small number of studies, further investigation is needed to increase confidence in existing evidence and to explore new risk and prognostic factors. Perspective: This is a review of the evidence about childhood and adolescent risk and prognostic factors for the onset of recurrent headaches and their course. Understanding these factors can help identify childrens’ risk and may suggest ways to reduce this risk.
This is the peer-reviewed manuscript version of the article: Huguet A, Tougas ME, Hayden J, McGrath PJ, Chambers CT, Stinson JN, Wozney L. (2016). Systematic Review of Childhood and Adolescent Risk and Prognostic Factors for Recurrent Headaches. Journal of Pain, 17(8):855-873.e8. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2016.03.010