METAL OXIDE NEGATIVE ELECTRODES FOR SODIUM-ION BATTERIES
MetadataShow full item record
Sodium-ion battery technology is of interest for energy storage applications because it has the potential to be sustainable and cost effective. Currently, the lack of a suitable negative electrode material limits the commercialization of sodium-ion batteries. In this work, metal oxides were explored as negative electrode candidates for sodium-ion batteries. Using electrochemical measurements, powder X-ray diffraction and Mӧssbauer spectroscopy, the electrochemistry and structure of metal oxides were investigated. Mixed transition metal titanate and vanadate materials that operated at low voltage with high volumetric capacity were synthesized, and observed to undergo unique sodiation mechanisms. The electrochemistry of binary metal oxides was also explored at elevated temperatures, leading to the activation of materials with sodium that are usually inactive at room temperature. Overall, the materials studied show promise in terms of achieving high energy density but more detailed investigations need to be performed in order to evaluate their commercial potential.