Characterization of Electrode Materials for Aqueous-Based Electrochemical Capacitors Using Spectroscopy, the Boehm Titration and Spectroelectrochemistry
Goertzen, Sarah L.
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In this research various techniques were used to study surface groups on carbon electrodes, including the spectroscopic techniques UV-Vis-NIR, FTIR, PAS, XPS and XAS, as well as the Boehm titration. The methods determined to give the best insight to the surface functionalities on the carbon were XPS, XAS and the Boehm titration. The Boehm titration methodology was standardized before use. An in situ method of examining surface groups using spectroscopy during electrochemistry was attempted. Spectroelectrochemistry is a useful way to gain information on how electrochemistry affects electrodes during experimentation; however, it was unsuccessful for the carbon used and remains to be developed. Polymerization of the copolymer of PANI and PPy as a potential electrode material for ECs was achieved by electrochemical cycling and was studied through spectroelectrochemical measurements. Overall, the research completed included the initial stages to studying electrodes for electrochemical capacitors using analytical, non-electrochemistry techniques in conjunction with electrochemistry.